MICROSCOPY Vol.44▶No.1 2009
â– Reviews

X-ray Diffraction Microscopy

Yoshinori Nishino

Abstract: X-ray diffraction microscopy is a novel technique to reconstruct sample image from the coherent x-ray diffraction pattern. An iterative phase retrieval method on a computer is used for image reconstruction. It requires no lens, and can achieve high spatial-resolution overcoming the limitation of conventional lens-based x-ray microscopy. It is especially effective for nondestructive measurement of internal-structure for thick objects utilizing high penetration power of x-rays. It is an ideal form of x-ray phase contrast microscopy, and high contrast can be achieved also for transparent objects, such as unstained cell organelles. Moreover, coherent diffraction around a Bragg reflection of a nano-crystal can also provide deformation field map. Worldwide research of x-ray diffraction microscopy using state-of-the-art undulator radiation is rapidly growing. Furthermore, the utilization of the next generation x-ray source, x-ray free electron laser, for this technique is receiving increasing attention. Here, I review the principle and the status of x-ray diffraction microscopy. In addition, I also mention the status of electron diffraction microscopy.

Key words: x-ray diffraction microscopy, coherent x-rays, oversampling, iterative phase retrieval method