MICROSCOPY Vol.47▶No.4 2012

A Promising Biomaterial for Periodontal Regenerative Therapy: Characteristics of the Cultured Human Periosteal Sheet

Tomoyuki Kawasea, Kazuhiro Okudab and Hiromasa Yoshieb

aDivision of Oral Bioengineering, Institute of Medicine and Dentistry, Niigata University
bDivision of Periodontology, Institute of Medicine and Dentistry, Niigata University

Abstract: We have developed and applied the tissue-engineered periosteal sheets in periodontal regenerative therapy. Periosteal sheets are simply prepared by explant culture and characterized as a highly integrated, tissue-engineered tissues composed mainly of cell-multilayers, abundant deposition of extracellular matrices. The osteogenic induction drastically up-regulates alkaline phosphatase activity and mineral deposit formation. This indicates that periosteal sheets contain many immature osteogenic progenitor cells, but the possible contamination of tissue-specific stem cells, which could eventually contribute to the osteogenic capacity, is not yet ruled out. In addition, periosteal sheets could be expected to function as “a living drug-delivery system (DDS)” to provide major growth factors involved in bone metabolism. Therefore, we believe the autologous periosteal sheet is a promising grafting material that is alternative to the autologous bone grafting in periodontal regenerative therapy. To expand this cell-based therapeutic methodology from periodontal field to other related fields, such as oral and maxillofacial surgery, plastic surgery, and orthopedic surgery, we are now investigating to improve the tissue-processing procedure, for example, by optimization of culture media and scaffolding materials.

Key words: Periodontal regenerative therapy, Cultured periosteal sheets, Scaffolds, Growth factors, Mesenchymal progenitor cells